Bodybuilding is the use of progressive resistance exercise to control and develop one’s musculature. An individual who engages in this activity is referred to as a bodybuilder. In professional bodybuilding, bodybuilders appear in lineups and perform specified poses (and later individual posing routines) for a panel of judges who rank the competitors based on criteria such as symmetry, muscularity, and conditioning. Bodybuilders prepare for competitions through a combination of intentional dehydration, elimination of nonessential body fat, and carbohydrate loading to achieve maximum vascularity, as well as tanning to accentuate muscular definition. Bodybuilders may use anabolic steroids to build muscles.
The winner of the annual IFBB Mr. Olympia contest is generally recognized as the world’s top male professional bodybuilder. The title was held by Phil Heath, who won every year from 2011 to 2017, but in 2018 the winner was Shawn Rhoden. The winner of the Women’s Physique portion of the competition is widely regarded as the world’s top female professional bodybuilder. The title is currently held by Juliana Malacarne, who has won every year since 2014. Since 1950, the NABBA Universe Championships have been considered the top amateur-bodybuilding contests, with notable winners such as Reg Park, Lee Priest, Steve Reeves, and Arnold Schwarzenegger.